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Puppy Growth-

What is Hip Dysplasia? Animals affected by hip dysplasia are born with normal hips, but quickly develop subluxation of the femoral head. Degenerative joint disease follows. Hip dysplasia is a complex, inherited, polygenic trait. Selective breeding of only normal dogs with normal littermates, parents, and grandparents is the recommended method of reducing the incidence in the general population. Gene expression in affected individuals may be modified by a number of environmental factors. These factors do not cause hip dysplasia, but they alter manifestations of the trait and its severity. Nutrition is a major environmental factor. Excess energy consumption increases the frequency and severity of hip dysplasia in genetically predisposed dogs. Food intake should be regulated to maintain a slender figure with the ribs and dorsal vertebral spines easily palpable, but not visible. Excess dietary calcium and vitamin D contribute to hip dysplasia in genetically predisposed individuals and should be avoided. High dose vitamin C supplementation in growing puppies does not prevent hip dysplasia, and this practice should be discontinued. Animals must be 2 years old before they can be certified as normal, but the disease may be diagnosed earlier.\

The top three environmental factors that have been found to play a significant role in the development of dysplastic hips are: a) joint laxity, b) weight, and c) exercise

Testing for Hip Dysplasia-



What is Elbow Dysplasia? Canine elbow dysplasia (ED) is a condition involving multiple developmental abnormalities of the elbow joint. The elbow joint is a complex joint made up of 3 bones (radius, ulna, and humerus) (figure 1). If the 3 bones do not fit together perfectly due to growth abnormalities, abnormal weight distribution on areas of the joint occur causing pain, lameness, and the development of arthritis. Elbow dysplasia is a disease that encompasses several conditions grouped into medial compartment disease (fragmented coronoid process (FCP), osteochondrosis (OCD), joint incongruity, and cartilage anomaly) and ununited anconeal process (UAP). The cause of ED in dogs remains unclear. There are a number of theories as to the exact cause of the disease that include genetics, defects in cartilage growth, trauma, diet, and so on. It is most commonly suspected this is a multifactorial disease in which causes the growth disturbances.

Testing for Elbow Dysplasia-OFA-

What is Patellar Luxation? Patellar luxation (dislocation) is a condition where the knee cap rides outside the femoral groove when the knee is flexed.

Four types of patellar-luxations

What is Osteochondrosis? Osteochondrosis in dogs is noted as a disruption in endochondrial ossification that results in a focal lesion.(1) It occurs in the physis or epiphysis of growth cartilage. When it occurs in physeal cartilage, it may cause growth abnormalities such as angular limb deformities in long bones. Osteochondrosis of the articular epiphyseal cartilage commonly occurs in the shoulder, stifle, hock and elbow.

What is Inter-vertebral Disc Disease? IVDD is condition caused by compression of the spine, resulting in inflammation and pressure on the spinal cord. IVDD can occur in the neck, thoracic, or lumbar spine. This results in the delay or inability of nerves to send signals to and from the brain. As a result, affected dogs can have symptoms ranging from delayed replacement of their paws (when picked up) to lack of pain and even complete paralysis. Where the condition occurs along the spinal cord will determine which limbs are affected. IVDD can range in severity from milder forms to emergency/critical situations depending on the degree of compression to the cord. When loss of deep pain and motor are present, it is critical to get your dog to the hospital as quickly as possible, as surgical intervention is required immediately to relieve this compression. With milder cases, extremely strict rest and medication may be enough to get the inflammation to subside.

What is CLC (Cruciate Ligament Tears)? The cranial cruciate ligament (or CCL, see Figure 1) is one of the most important stabilizers inside the knee (also called ‘stifle’) joint, the middle joint in the back leg. In humans the CCL is called the anterior cruciate ligament (or ACL). The meniscus (see Figure 1) is a ‘cartilage-like’ structure that sits in between the shin and thigh bone. It serves many important functions in the joint such as shock absorption, proprioception and load bearing and is frequently damaged when the CCL is injured. Rupture (either partial or complete) of the CCL is one of the most common reasons for hind limb lameness, pain and subsequent arthritis.

What is Shoulder OCD? Osteochondrosis (OC) or osteochondrosis dissecans (OCD) is a developmental orthopedic disease affecting young, large breed dogs. An area of bone fails to mature and mineralize properly, creating a thickened area of cartilage within the joint. The thickened cartilage becomes susceptible to injury from normal activity and can form a flap of cartilage exposing the underlying bone. The shoulder joint is the most common site for OCD. Genetics plays a role in the development of this disease and affected dogs should not be bred.Dogs with OCD typically begin to show lameness before 12 months of age and the diagnosis is made by localizing pain to the shoulder and confirming the abnormality on x-rays. Treatment includes arthroscopic removal of the cartilage flap. While most dogs fully recover, nearly all develop OA in the joint.

What is Panosteitis?
Panosteitis—also known as enostosis, eosinophilic panosteitis, juvenile osteomyelitis, and osteomyelitis of young German shepherd dogs—is a self-limiting disease of the long bones of large- and giant-breed dogs. It most commonly affects the ulna, followed by the radius, humerus, femur, and tibia.

Panosteitis in dogs is a specific painful bone condition involving the long leg bones of large breed dogs generally between ages 5 and 18 months. The condition can be quite painful during its flare-ups but ultimately resolves permanently when the pup outgrows it.

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